What is STUN?
A STUN (Session Traversal of User Datagram Protocol [UDP] Through Network Address Translators [NATs]) server allows NAT clients (i.e. IP Phones behind a firewall) to setup phone calls to a VoIP provider hosted outside of the local network.
What does a STUN server do?
The STUN server allows clients to find out their public address, the type of NAT they are behind and the Internet side port associated by the NAT with a particular local port. This information is used to set up UDP communication between the client and the VoIP provider to establish a call. The STUN protocol is defined in RFC 3489.
The STUN server is contacted on UDP port 3478, however, the server will hint clients to perform tests on alternate IP and port number too (STUN servers have two IP addresses).
The RFC states that this port and IP are arbitrary.
Public Stun Server List